Trainee Moneyba Velázquez on violence in Spain
Genderově podmíněné násilí? Gender-based violence? Domestic violence?
In Spain, a specific term is used for the violence committed by men on their partners, namely "gender-based violence", so we do not use the term domestic violence.
The term "gender violence" refers to violence that has its roots in the dominant gender relationships existing in society where men dominate women.For domestic violence, the term "intrafamily violence" is also used. This violence takes place within the family, such as violence committed by parents on children or children on parents, violence among siblings, and, last but not least, violence by men on men.
For the past 15 years, 885 women have died as a result of gender violence.
In 2015, 60 women were murdered by their partners or former partners.
In 2016, 53 women were murdered
In 2017, statistics show a total of 50 women, but it can be expected that this number will still grow.
For comparison, in 2015 a total of 10 men were murdered by their partners, and 2 in self-defense.
In the second half of 2016, the police reported a total of 36,319 complaints from women about a partner or a former partner. In the first half of 2017, there were already 42,689 complaints. Every year the number of complaints increases.
Znamená to, že počet případů genderově podmíněného násilí má tendenci růst?
It does not necessarily have to be. Gender violence is spoken about more now than in the past. Every murder of this type is spoken about on television and in newspapers. For some women there is a fear about the problem of talking and reporting their aggressor, also because they are afraid they might pay the highest fine for reporting against the perpetrator of the violence.
What is the main cause of gender-based violence?
The main reason is the patriarchal and androcentric society that gave men a sense of superiority and domination over women. Boys are brought up with violence as a demonstration of power, and girls are, on the contrary, led to subordination and passivity, a so-called differentiated socialization. I think there are also many gender stereotypes about how a relationship should look like. The phrase "The Lord is in the relationship between the one who wears the trousers" has the connotation of supremacy and domination.
What prevents them from reporting an act to the police?
- the fear that nobody will believe them.
- they do not know where they would go, because they are often economically dependent on them.
- Fear of what might happen to their children. They're afraid their father might try to kill him so he can get revenge on his partner.
- In many cases women do not want to talk about it, because they love their partner and are emotionally dependent on them.
What would Moneyba advise to victims of gender-based violence?
I would encourage them not to look at the relationship in which any signs of violence appear to be normal. Many women normalize ill-treatment and suffer silently. They do not accept that they are victims of gender-based violence. I would encourage women to leave this toxic relationship at the first indication of abuse. If it is a long-term relationship that has already been the subject of several abuses, command the abuser to leave, or if he does not leave, you must. Do not worry, because there is a lot of opportunities to ask for help.
Where can victims of gender-based violence seek help?
In Spain there is a free phone line for victims of gender-based violence where they can get the necessary information, help and immediate assistance in case of imminent danger. There are also various facilities where women can take refuge with their children in the event of extreme urgency.
I think it must start with prevention. Change the system of education, educate without gender stereotypes and gender-sensitive education beginning in the pre-school age of the child. Support girls and raise them to have healthy self-confidence.
I also find it very important that the current Spanish Government pledges to implement the necessary measures in a governmental strategy aimed at strengthening gender equality and preventing gender-based violence.